Practice Test
  1.How are submarine canyons formed?  
  a.   longshore current  
  b.   runoff  
  c.   turbidity currents  
  d.   rivers  
  2.How does the satellite Topex/Poseidon map ocean features?  
  a.   radar  
  b.   ultraviolet rays  
  c.   X rays  
  d.   visible light  
  3.Where do tectonic plates interact?  
  a.   in deep-sea trenches  
  b.   at mid-ocean ridges  
  c.   at plate boundaries  
  d.   at plate centers  
  4.What is thought to be the driving mechanism of plate movement?  
  a.   conduction of heat in the mantle  
  b.   volcanoes  
  c.   convection currents in the mantle  
  d.   continental drifting  
  5.What is the probability of earthquake occurrence based on?  
  a.   reoccurrence rates of earthquakes in an area and the rate of strain buildup  
  b.   magnitude of P-waves  
  c.   location of foci  
  d.   strain buildup only  
  6.What is a rating from the Richter scale based on?  
  a.   frequency of the waves  
  b.   wavelength of the waves  
  c.   damage from the largest wave  
  d.   size of the largest wave  
  7.The __________ states that Earth's crust and ridged upper mantle are broken into plates that move at different rates and in different directions.  
  a.   hypothesis of continental drift  
  b.   theory of seafloor spreading  
  c.   hypothesis of continental movement  
  d.   theory of plate tectonics  
  8.How are the convection currents set in motion?  
  a.   spreading mid-ocean ridges  
  b.   the heat from radioactive decay  
  c.   slab push and ridge pull  
  d.   slab push  
  9.How many satellites are in the GPS?  
  a.   50  
  b.   4  
  c.   6  
  d.   24  
  10.A large ocean wave that is generated by vertical motions of the seafloor during an earthquake is called a(n) __________.  
  a.   seiche  
  b.   upwelling current  
  c.   tsunami  
  d.   tidal range  
  11.At what point in the graph would a rock be permanently deformed?

  a.   past the elastic limit  
  b.   at the start of the stress  
  c.   at the elastic limit  
  d.   at the failure point  
  12.What are shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquake classifications based on?  
  a.   the depth of the focus  
  b.   amplitude of the largest wave  
  c.   frequency of the largest wave  
  d.   the amount of damage  
  13.__________ causes permanent strain.  
  a.   Ductile deformation  
  b.   Tension  
  c.   Compression  
  d.   Elastic deformation  
  14.The record produced by a seismometer is called a __________.  
  a.   seismochart  
  b.   plot  
  c.   seismograph  
  d.   seismogram  
  15.The lowering of the land surface due to wind removing particles is called __________.  
  a.   saltation  
  b.   erosion  
  c.   abrasion  
  d.   deflation  
  16.What are large, angular fragments thrown from a volcano called?  
  a.   volcanic blocks  
  b.   volcanic bombs  
  c.   lapilli  
  d.   ash  
  17.Why does knowledge of Earth's interior come from seismic waves?  
  a.   They change speed only when they encounter different materials.  
  b.   They change direction and intensity when they encounter different material.  
  c.   They change type when they encounter different materials.  
  d.   They change speed and direction when they encounter different materials.  
  18.What is the name of a large volcanic crater over 1 km in diameter?  
  a.   a vent  
  b.   a batholith  
  c.   a caldera  
  d.   a stock  
  19.What is a rock called that has been shaped by wind-blown sediments?  
  a.   a dune  
  b.   loess  
  c.   a ventifact  
  d.   a desert pavement  
  20.According to the table, what happens to the water temperature as depth increases?

Ocean depth (m) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Water temperature (C) 23 23 23 15 5.5 5 5 5 5 4.5 4.5 4

  a.   It remains constant.  
  b.   It increases.  
  c.   It fluctuates.  
  d.   It decreases.  

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