Practice Test
  1.How many times larger is a magnitude 3 than a magnitude 1 earthquake on the Richter scale?  
  a.   10 times  
  b.   100 times  
  c.   1/10 times  
  d.   100 000 times  
  2.What is a rating for an earthquake from the modified Mercalli scale based on?  
  a.   frequency of the waves  
  b.   amount of damage  
  c.   its P-wave  
  d.   amplitude of the largest wave  
  3.How are the convection currents set in motion?  
  a.   slab push and ridge pull  
  b.   spreading mid-ocean ridges  
  c.   the heat from radioactive decay  
  d.   slab push  
  4.Where do tectonic plates interact?  
  a.   in deep-sea trenches  
  b.   at mid-ocean ridges  
  c.   at plate boundaries  
  d.   at plate centers  
  5.Which of the sand dunes in the figure accumulates in areas with very little sand?

  a.   c  
  b.   b  
  c.   d  
  d.   a  
  6.What type of volcano forms from alternating layers of tephra and nonexplosive lava?  
  a.   shield volcano  
  b.   caldera  
  c.   composite volcano  
  d.   cinder cone  
  7.Unlike water, wind commonly can __________.  
  a.   move sediment uphill  
  b.   move sediment downhill  
  c.   put sediment into suspension  
  d.   abrade particles  
  8.A large ocean wave that is generated by vertical motions of the seafloor during an earthquake is called a(n) __________.  
  a.   seiche  
  b.   tidal range  
  c.   tsunami  
  d.   upwelling current  
  9.__________ are submerged basaltic volcanoes more than 1 km high.  
  a.   Fracture zones  
  b.   Submarine canyons  
  c.   Seamounts  
  d.   Shelf breaks  
  10.__________ is the force per unit area acting on a material.  
  a.   Stress  
  b.   Strain  
  c.   Shear  
  d.   Rotation  
  11.What is thought to be the driving mechanism of plate movement?  
  a.   volcanoes  
  b.   convection currents in the mantle  
  c.   continental drifting  
  d.   conduction of heat in the mantle  
  12.Which wave arrives at a seismic facility first?  
  a.   P-wave  
  b.   tidal wave  
  c.   S-wave  
  d.   surface wave  
  13.How was the volcano cone shown in the figure formed?

  a.   uplifting of mountains before exploding into a volcano  
  b.   a mixture of lava and volcanic fragments  
  c.   material is ejected into the air and falls back to earth  
  d.   layer upon layer of basaltic lava accumulating during nonexplosive eruptions  
  14.What does the straight part of a stress-strain graph portray?  
  a.   failure  
  b.   shearing direction  
  c.   elastic deformation  
  d.   ductile deformation  
  15.According to the table, what happens to the water temperature as depth increases?

Ocean depth (m) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Water temperature (C) 23 23 23 15 5.5 5 5 5 5 4.5 4.5 4

  a.   It fluctuates.  
  b.   It increases.  
  c.   It remains constant.  
  d.   It decreases.  
  16.Places where two tectonic plates are moving away from each other are called __________.  
  a.   divergent boundaries  
  b.   convergent boundaries  
  c.   earthquake boundaries  
  d.   transform boundaries  
  17.The record produced by a seismometer is called a __________.  
  a.   seismogram  
  b.   seismochart  
  c.   plot  
  d.   seismograph  
  18.What does GPS stand for?  
  a.   Geodial Position Satellite  
  b.   Global Potential Satellite  
  c.   Geographic Positioning System  
  d.   Global Positioning System  
  19.How does the satellite Topex/Poseidon map ocean features?  
  a.   visible light  
  b.   X rays  
  c.   radar  
  d.   ultraviolet rays  
  20.What is the probability of earthquake occurrence based on?  
  a.   reoccurrence rates of earthquakes in an area and the rate of strain buildup  
  b.   location of foci  
  c.   strain buildup only  
  d.   magnitude of P-waves  

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