Earthquakes

Practice Test
      
  1.The __________ states that Earth's crust and ridged upper mantle are broken into plates that move at different rates and in different directions.  
  a.   hypothesis of continental movement  
  b.   hypothesis of continental drift  
  c.   theory of seafloor spreading  
  d.   theory of plate tectonics  
      
  2.Unlike water, wind commonly can __________.  
  a.   abrade particles  
  b.   move sediment downhill  
  c.   move sediment uphill  
  d.   put sediment into suspension  
      
  3.What is the shallowest part of the continental margin called?  
  a.   the shelf break  
  b.   the continental shelf  
  c.   a submarine canyon  
  d.   the continental rise  
      
  4.According to the table, what happens to the water temperature as depth increases?

Ocean depth (m) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Water temperature (C) 23 23 23 15 5.5 5 5 5 5 4.5 4.5 4


 
  a.   It increases.  
  b.   It fluctuates.  
  c.   It decreases.  
  d.   It remains constant.  
      
  5.When is wind-transported material deposited?  
  a.   when the particles break apart  
  b.   when the wind slows  
  c.   when the wind changes direction  
  d.   when the wind becomes stronger  
      
  6.__________ push and pull rocks in the same direction along which the waves are traveling.  
  a.   Surface waves  
  b.   Primary waves  
  c.   Secondary waves  
  d.   Shear waves  
      
  7.What is thought to be the driving mechanism of plate movement?  
  a.   continental drifting  
  b.   volcanoes  
  c.   conduction of heat in the mantle  
  d.   convection currents in the mantle  
      
  8.What is a rating for an earthquake from the modified Mercalli scale based on?  
  a.   amount of damage  
  b.   amplitude of the largest wave  
  c.   its P-wave  
  d.   frequency of the waves  
      
  9.What is a rating from the Richter scale based on?  
  a.   damage from the largest wave  
  b.   frequency of the waves  
  c.   size of the largest wave  
  d.   wavelength of the waves  
      
  10.When a divergent plate boundary forms on continents, a __________ forms.  
  a.   crater  
  b.   rift valley  
  c.   volcano  
  d.   mid-continent ridge  
      
  11.How are the convection currents set in motion?  
  a.   the heat from radioactive decay  
  b.   slab push  
  c.   spreading mid-ocean ridges  
  d.   slab push and ridge pull  
      
  12.How does the satellite Topex/Poseidon map ocean features?  
  a.   radar  
  b.   ultraviolet rays  
  c.   visible light  
  d.   X rays  
      
  13.At what point in the graph would a rock be permanently deformed?



 
  a.   at the elastic limit  
  b.   past the elastic limit  
  c.   at the start of the stress  
  d.   at the failure point  
      
  14.The table shows how many eruptions were experienced by volcanoes in the past 100,000 years. Which volcano is the least likely to experience a huge eruption in present day?

Feature State Late Pleistocene Holocene
Huge Huge Large Medium Small
Mount Baker WA       1 3
Glacier Peak WA     2   7
Mount Rainier WA 1     1 10
Mount St. Helens WA       7  
Mount Adams WA         4
Mount Hood OR         3
Mount Jefferson OR 1        
Three Sisters OR     2   2
Newberry Caldera OR     1 3  
Crater Lake OR   1 2    
Medicine Lake CA       8 8
Mount Shasta CA 1   2   10
Lassen Peak CA 4   1   2
Total   7 1 10 20 49


 
  a.   Mount Rainier  
  b.   Mount Shasta  
  c.   Mount Hood  
  d.   Lassen Peak  
      
  15.What is the probability of earthquake occurrence based on?  
  a.   location of foci  
  b.   magnitude of P-waves  
  c.   reoccurrence rates of earthquakes in an area and the rate of strain buildup  
  d.   strain buildup only  
      
  16.Use the graph to determine how long it took for S-waves to reach Station B after the earthquake.  
  a.   5 minutes  
  b.   30 minutes  
  c.   10 minutes  
  d.   20 minutes  
      
  17.What is a pyroclastic flow?  
  a.   lava that hardens into a batholith  
  b.   a mixture of volcanic gas, ash, and other tephra  
  c.   when lava comes out of a volcanic vent  
  d.   poisonous gas of a volcano  
      
  18.Which method uses sound waves for remote sensing?  
  a.   Landsat satellite  
  b.   sonar  
  c.   Topex/Poseison satellite  
  d.   GPS  
      
  19.A large ocean wave that is generated by vertical motions of the seafloor during an earthquake is called a(n) __________.  
  a.   seiche  
  b.   upwelling current  
  c.   tidal range  
  d.   tsunami  
      
  20.Which wave arrives at a seismic facility first?  
  a.   P-wave  
  b.   tidal wave  
  c.   surface wave  
  d.   S-wave  

 
   
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