Earthquakes

Practice Test
      
  1.How are the convection currents set in motion?  
  a.   spreading mid-ocean ridges  
  b.   slab push  
  c.   slab push and ridge pull  
  d.   the heat from radioactive decay  
      
  2.Where does an earthquake originate?  
  a.   at the focus  
  b.   at Earth's inner core  
  c.   at the epicenter  
  d.   at the P-wave  
      
  3.The lowering of the land surface due to wind removing particles is called __________.  
  a.   erosion  
  b.   deflation  
  c.   saltation  
  d.   abrasion  
      
  4.Where do most volcanoes form?  
  a.   in the southern hemisphere  
  b.   at plate boundaries  
  c.   far from plate boundaries  
  d.   along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge  
      
  5.What is the crustal part of the lithosphere primarily composed of?  
  a.   igneous rocks  
  b.   simple oxides  
  c.   peridotite  
  d.   iron and nickel  
      
  6.Where do tectonic plates interact?  
  a.   at mid-ocean ridges  
  b.   at plate boundaries  
  c.   at plate centers  
  d.   in deep-sea trenches  
      
  7.The table shows how many eruptions were experienced by volcanoes in the past 100,000 years. Which volcano is the least likely to experience a huge eruption in present day?

Feature State Late Pleistocene Holocene
Huge Huge Large Medium Small
Mount Baker WA       1 3
Glacier Peak WA     2   7
Mount Rainier WA 1     1 10
Mount St. Helens WA       7  
Mount Adams WA         4
Mount Hood OR         3
Mount Jefferson OR 1        
Three Sisters OR     2   2
Newberry Caldera OR     1 3  
Crater Lake OR   1 2    
Medicine Lake CA       8 8
Mount Shasta CA 1   2   10
Lassen Peak CA 4   1   2
Total   7 1 10 20 49


 
  a.   Lassen Peak  
  b.   Mount Shasta  
  c.   Mount Rainier  
  d.   Mount Hood  
      
  8.According to the graph, at what depth does the sea floor start to drop off?



 
  a.   2 km  
  b.   1 km  
  c.   8 km  
  d.   4 km  
      
  9.What is a rock called that has been shaped by wind-blown sediments?  
  a.   a ventifact  
  b.   loess  
  c.   a dune  
  d.   a desert pavement  
      
  10.What is thought to be the driving mechanism of plate movement?  
  a.   convection currents in the mantle  
  b.   volcanoes  
  c.   continental drifting  
  d.   conduction of heat in the mantle  
      
  11.What is the probability of earthquake occurrence based on?  
  a.   location of foci  
  b.   strain buildup only  
  c.   magnitude of P-waves  
  d.   reoccurrence rates of earthquakes in an area and the rate of strain buildup  
      
  12.According to the map, at which latitude and longitude is most likely to experience an earthquake?

Click here for figure

 
  a.   30 S, 60 W  
  b.   0 N, 180 W  
  c.   0 N, 30 W  
  d.   60 N, 120 E  
      
  13.Why are three circles needed to determine the epicenter, as shown in the figure?

 
  a.   Scientists always take measurements in threes.  
  b.   The more measurements, the better.  
  c.   The epicenter can move.  
  d.   If only two circles are used, there are two possible locations.  
      
  14.Why does knowledge of Earth's interior come from seismic waves?  
  a.   They change direction and intensity when they encounter different material.  
  b.   They change type when they encounter different materials.  
  c.   They change speed and direction when they encounter different materials.  
  d.   They change speed only when they encounter different materials.  
      
  15.What does the straight part of a stress-strain graph portray?  
  a.   failure  
  b.   shearing direction  
  c.   elastic deformation  
  d.   ductile deformation  
      
  16.How does a Landsat satellite differentiate between objects on Earth's surface?  
  a.   Features on Earth radiate warmth at different frequencies, which show up as different colors on Landsat images.  
  b.   Landsat measures the longest frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from Earth.  
  c.   Landsat satellites take pictures using visible light.  
  d.   Landsat uses a single detector to measure the intensities of energy.  
      
  17.What is the process called when one plate is forced beneath another at a convergent plate boundary?  
  a.   subtraction  
  b.   convergence  
  c.   subduction  
  d.   transformation  
      
  18.According to the map, a seismic station in which city would be the first to detect seismic waves from an earthquake occurring in Mexico City?



 
  a.   Chihuahua  
  b.   Houston  
  c.   Acapulco  
  d.   Boulder  
      
  19.What is the electromagnetic spectrum?  
  a.   frequencies measured by satellites  
  b.   visible light  
  c.   energy emitted from Earth  
  d.   the arrangement of electromagnetic radiation  
      
  20.__________ are submerged basaltic volcanoes more than 1 km high.  
  a.   Seamounts  
  b.   Shelf breaks  
  c.   Submarine canyons  
  d.   Fracture zones  

 
   
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